Tropical countries are characterized by a high frequency of infectious diseases caused by viruses, fungi, bacteria and parasites, which can be found everywhere: soil, fresh water, salt water, at the bottom of the ocean and air. We eat them, drink them and breathe them daily. However, despite their apparently overwhelming presence, they rarely invade, multiply and cause an infection in humans. Even when they do, such infection is sometimes so slight that do not cause any symptoms.
In fact, there are few microorganisms capable of causing disease. Many of them live on the skin, mouth, respiratory tract, intestines and genitals. Their permanence as harmless partners or their invasion and a disease causing in the host, depend on the microorganism nature and human body defenses.
Infectious diseases are, generally, caused by microorganisms invading the body and their multiplication. Invasion begins, generally, by means of adherence to the cells of the person affected. This process is very specific and involves coupling between the human cell and the microorganism, similar to a key with its lock. That this remains close to the invasion point or spreads to distant points, depends on factors as toxins, enzymes or other substances production.
Some microorganisms that invade the body produce toxins (poisons that affect nearby or distant cells). Most of them have components that join molecules of certain cells (codocytes or target cells), where causing a disease.
For this reason, Molecular Biology has implemented specific diagnostic tests for the detection of such microorganisms, intended to decrease the diagnostic response time in the different infectious pathologies affecting the different systems of the body. In addition, these tests’ specificity and sensitivity allow the design of a multiplex (different microorganisms in one trial) according to the prevalence and system where the pathology is caused, by which, CELAGEM has designed the following multiplex in accordance with the study area: